Time Perspective, Decision Making Styles and Career Decision Making Difficulties in School and College Students

Author: Beenish Najam

Supervisor: Saima Ghazal, PhD

Degree: Mphil

Year: 2014-2016

University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


Making decisions regarding a career is an important task for young people. In adolescence, the choice of career in further education is one of the most important decisions that an adolescent has to make. A correlational (cross-sectional) study aimed to explore career decision making difficulties across three education levels, career decision making styles and its relationship with time perspective in school and college students. Sample comprised of 410 students from 9th, 11th and 13th year classes, with age range between 14-20 years. Sample was selected from public and private sector schools and colleges of Lahore. Data were collected through convenient sampling. Time perspective inventory (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999), Decision making styles questionnaire (Scott & Bruce, 1995) and career decision making difficulties questionnaire (Gati & Saka, 2001) were used. Data were analyzed through Descriptive statistics, Pearson Product Moment Correlation, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), one way ANOVA. Findings revealed that students scored higher on lack of readiness category of career decision making difficulties indicating they have more difficulties regarding lack of motivation, general indecisiveness and dysfunctional beliefs. Ninth class students scored higher on career decision making difficulties which mean they are facing more difficulties for making decisions regarding career. Spontaneous decision making style and past positive time perspective independently predicted overall career decision making difficulties. Spontaneous decision making style was found to be a significant mediator between future time perspective and career decision making difficulties. Results are discussed in terms of their implications and theoretical significance.

Keywords: Time Perspective, Decision Making Styles, Career Decision Making Difficulties.

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Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: chairperson@appsy.pu.edu.pk, Phone: 92-42-9231245

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