Author: Rahat Maqsood
Supervisor: Dr. Naumana Amjad
University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan
The present research is a study of gender and age differences in the use of swearing language among college and university students. In addition, it also focused on the situational differences in swearing. The research differentiates between two types of situations, namely positive situations in which swearing is used for expression of positive mood or emotions and negative situations in which swearing is used as expression of negative mood. A research instrument, the Abusive Language Use Scale (ALUS) was developed and administered. The psychometric property of the scale was established with the help of reliability analysis. In order to find out if positive situations and negative situations represent two different constructs, factor analysis (principal components) was carried out. The results confirmed the assumption. The study also investigated if swearing was more endorsed in negative mood than positive mood. The results showed that use and endorsement of swearing in positive situations (e.g. Joking with friends) was lower than swearing in negative situations (e.g. in anger). This indicated that students use swears words more often in negative situations than in positive situations. A comparison of college and university students in swearing was also carried out by using Independent sample T-test. The results revealed that there was not a significant age difference in the use of swearing language. A comparison of boys and girls in overall swearing also carried out by using Independent sample T- test. The result revealed that males swear more than females. Another comparison of girls and boys in two types of situations was also carried out by using Independent sample T- test. The results revealed that there was not a significant gender difference in use of swearing language in negative situations; boys reported more swearing in positive as well as they also use swear words in negative situations.
Keywords: Swearing Languages, Negative situations, Gender difference, Positive situations, Anger, College students, University students
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Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Phone: 92-42-9231245