Self-Determination, Body Esteem, Stress and Body Dysmorphic Symptoms in University Students

Author: Rida Arshad

Supervisor: Dr. Fauzia Naz

Degree: MSc

Year: 2011-2013

University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


The present research explored the relationship between self- determination, body esteem, stress and body dysmorphic symptoms among university students. It was assumed that relationship exists between self-determination, body esteem, stress and severity of body dysmorphic symptoms in students. Lack of self-determination, low body esteem and stress are likely to predict severity of body dysmorphic symptoms in students. 100 students (50 boys & 50 girls) were recruited from University of the Punjab. Their mean age was 18.64 years (SD =.64). The students were identified as under-weight and over-weight using Body Mass Index Chart. Self-determination was assessed by using self- determination Scale (Wehmeyer & Kelchner, 1995). Body Esteem Scale (Franzio & Shields, 1984) was used to assess body esteem of the students. Sub-Scale of Stress of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) was used to assess stress in students. Body Dysmorphic Scale (Naz & Kausar, 2012) was used to assess body dysmorphic symptoms of students. Results revealed positive relationship between stress, low body esteem, autonomy (sub-scale of self-determination) and severity of body dysmorphic symptoms. There was negative relationship between self- regulation, psychological empowerment (sub-scales of self- determination) and severity of body dysmorphic symptoms in students. Stress, lack of psychological empowerment emerged as significant predictors of body dysmorphic symptoms in students.

Keywords: Body Dysmorphic Symptoms, Body Esteem, Stress, Self- Determination, Psychological Empowerment.

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Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email:, Phone: 92-42-9231245

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