Rumination, Academic Stress, Eating Behaviors, Sleep Habits and Sleep Quality of University Students

Author: Bushra Iqbal

Supervisor: Naumana Amjad, PhD

Degree: M.Sc

Year: 2014-2016

University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


The present study was conducted to investigate rumination, academic stress, eating behaviors, sleep habits and sleep quality of university students. A correlational research design was used in which sample of 120  university  students  was  selected  from  different  universities  of Lahore. Data was collected through convenient sampling technique. A Ruminative Response Style scale (RRS) (Nolen-Hoeksema & Morrow, 1991), Educational Stress Scale for Adolescents (ESSA) (Dune, Sun, Nguyen, Truc, Loan & Dixon, 2010), Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire (AEBQ) (Schlundt, 2003) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) (Buysse, 1989) were used to measure the study variables. Inventory of Sleep Habits was developed based on earlier sleep research. Reliability of these measures was satisfactory (α = .80, α = .77, α = .76) except for Sleep Quality Scale (α = .54). The sleep habits inventory contained categorical as well as 4 point likert response style. The later part had satisfactory reliability (α = .70) and correlated significantly and positively with sleep quality thereby indication it as a valid measure. Pearson Product Moment Correlation was conducted to assess the relationship between variables. The results revealed that rumination and academic stress as well as sleep habits have a significant positive relationship with sleep quality indicating those who experiencing more stress and rumination tend to have a poorer quality of sleep. There was a significant negative relationship between eating behaviors and sleep quality. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that rumination, academic stress and eating behaviors were significant predictors of sleep quality. The study highlights the importance of peaceful thoughts, letting go of negative thoughts, stress management and healthy eating. It’s good sleeping arrangements in families is beneficial for sleep quality.

Keywords: Rumination, Academic Stress, Eating Behaviors, Sleep Habits, Sleep quality.

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Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email:, Phone: 92-42-9231245

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