Author: Ayesha Younas
Supervisor: Dr. Naumana Amjad
University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan
The present research aimed to investigate whether normative beliefs about aggression and justification of indirect aggression can be changed through educational intervention and whether there are gender differences on normative beliefs and justifications. It was hypothesized that normative beliefs and justifications would be reduced after educational intervention among experimental groups, and there would be a significant difference in beliefs of experimental and control groups. A mixed (between and within group) experimental design was used. Sample consisted of 156 students from three departments of Punjab University, Lahore. It involved pre-test measurement of normative beliefs about aggression and justification of indirect aggression, an educational intervention lecture and a post-test measurement of beliefs. Experimental group received intervention and control group received lecture on an unrelated topic. An experimental post-test only group was included to discern the effect of demand characteristics. Normative Beliefs about Aggression (Huesmannm & Guerra, 1997) and Justification of Aggressive Responding Questionnaire (Jameel, 2006) were administered on each participant. Independent sample t-test was carried out to compare experimental and control groups and males and females. Paired sample t– test was used to compare pre and post intervention beliefs of experimental group. Normative beliefs about aggression and justification of indirect aggression were significantly reduced after educational intervention and there was no gender difference on any measure.
Keywords: Relational Victimization, Normative Beliefs, Indirect Aggression.
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Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: email@example.com, Phone: 92-42-9231245