Gender Differences in Test Anxiety and Level of Examination Stress among Masters’ Students

Author: Saima Eman

Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Yasmin N. Farooqi

Degree: M.Sc

Year: 2003-2005

University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


This research investigates gender differences in test-anxiety and level of examination stress among Masters’ students using a comparative group design. Purposive sampling was used. The sample consisted of Semester I/III students (N=100) aged 20-28, 50 males and 50 females. The number of students taken from Department of Sociology was 65 whereas 35 students were taken from the Institute of Business Administration. Test Anxiety inventory by Charles D. Spielberger and the Stress Inventory adapted from examination department, institute of cost and management accountants of Pakistan were administered to Masters’ students 3-7 days before the final exams to each participant individually. Multivariate test and t test showed that female Masters’ students experience significantly higher level of test anxiety, worry, emotionality and examination stress than male Masters’ students. Factor analysis showed three factors in Test Anxiety Inventory: Panic, tension, pessimistic thoughts and four factors in Stress Inventory: stress associated performance, personal support, state of stagnation or fatigue, physiological disturbance.

Keywords: Test Anxiety, Examination Stress, Emotionality , Pessimistic Thoughts, Personal Support, Stagnation or Fatigue, Physiological Disturbance

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Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email:, Phone: 92-42-9231245

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