Adaptive Learning in High and Low Achievers

Author: Kiran Siddique

Supervisor: Ms. Afifa Anjum

Degree: MSc

Year: 2011-2013

University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


This study aimed to explore adaptive learning in high and low achiever students. It was hypothesized that high achievers will be more adaptive learners than low achievers, and this effect will remain significant even when gender and socioeconomic status (family income and urban vs. rural residential status) are entered in analysis. Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scale (Midgely, Maehr, Hruda, et al., 2000) were administered on 130 students from two universities of Lahore. Purposive sampling was employed. From each class selected, top 15% and bottom 15% from the end semester GPA list were recruited as high and low achievers respectively. Independent samples t-test was performed to find out differences in adaptive learning by achievement type (high versus low achievers). Findings revealed that high achievers scored significantly more than low achievers on overall adaptive learning. Further analysis revealed that both groups differ only on perception of classroom goal structure. Two way ANOVA were carried out to investigate the differences in adaptive learning by achievement type, gender, family income and residence to identify any interactional effect of these variables. Again main effect of achievement type was found significant. Gender and family income had no significant main effect as well as no interaction was found significant. Residence had significant main effect. Students from urban areas were more adaptive learners. Findings are discussed in light of characteristics of adaptive learners relating to achievement and environmental differences and pressures faced by students coming from a less privileged environment.

Keywords: Adaptive Learning, High Achievers, Low Achievers, Achievement.

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Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email:, Phone: 92-42-9231245

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