Author: Nayab Zahra

Supervisor: Hidna Iqbal, Sharmeen Aslam Tarar,Rukhsana Kausar PhD

Degree: MS

Year: 2014-2016

University: Centre for Clinical Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


Present Cross-sectional research was designed to provide data on
age of acquisition of Urdu Consonants in typically developing
children aged 3;1 to 4:12 years. It also investigated the age and
gender difference in speech sound accuracy in terms of
Percentage Consonant Correct (PCC) and Percentage Phoneme
Correct (PPC). Sample comprised of 120 children with gender
distribution in four age groups (3.1-3.6 years, 3.7-3.12 years, 4.1-
4.6 years and 4.7-4.l2 years) was recruited from a single city
Daska, Pakistan. Present study comprised of two phases. In the
initial phase, Wordlist for Articulation and Phonological
Assessment was devised as no articulation test or wordlist was
available to use for data elicitation. Wordlist comprised of 95
words encompassing 38 Urdu consonants at all four syllable
positions ranging from mono-syllabic to poly-syllabic word
structures. Picture booklet of those 95 words was developed in
order to elicit data either spontaneously or with prompts. In the
second phase, data was elicited using single word picture naming
task. All the data obtained was transcribed then analyzed in terms
of speech sound acquisition and PCC and PPC. Results suggested
that the age of acquisition of Urdu consonants was across the
board (ranging 3.l to 4.12 years or older). Children between 3.1-
4.12 years of age exhibited the customary production of total 33
Urdu consonants and mastery production of total 17 Urdu consonants. In addition, age of acquisition of Urdu consonants also differed according to syllable positions. Moreover,
significant differences in PCC and PPC of 3.1-3.6 years, 3.7-3.12
years, 4.l-4.6 years and 4.7-4.12 years old children were found.
However no significant gender difference in the PCC and PPC of
children across all four age groups was found. Present study
provides indigenous data on Urdu phonological development that
will be helpful for SLTs in clinical decision making.

Keywords: Urdu Consonants, Percentage Consonant Correct (PCC), Percentage Phonemes Correct (PPC).

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