Author: Saira Ambreen

Supervisor: Nazia Bashir, Sharmeen Aslam Tara,Rukhsana Kausar PhD

Degree: MS

Year: 2014-2016

University: Centre for Clinical Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


This study was designed to find Normative Acoustic Measures of
adults in Pakistan. Age and gender differences in these parameters
were also studied. The study variables included: FO, Absolute
Jitter, Relative Jitter, RAP, PPQ5, Jitter DDP, Shimmer local,
Shimmer DB, APQ3, APQ5, DDA, HNR and MPT. The sample
comprised of 71 participants (men 34; women=37), was recruited
through two-stage sampling; initially Convenience Sampling
followed by Purposive Sampling. Participants were selected from
the students, staff and faculty of University of the Punjab,
caretakers of clients coming for clinical services and researcher’s
friends, family and acquaintances. They were further divided into
three subgroups based on following age bands: 21-30 years, 31-40
years and 41-50 years. After screening for health issues, voice
samples were recorded in a sound-proof acoustic lab, under
comfortable phonation, by using standheld PL-24 entry level
microphone and Praat software. Voice analyses were done
through Praat. Means and Standard Deviations were found for the
participants. Age and gender differences were investigated by
using two-way ANOVA. Normative values were also found for
the men and women between the ages of 21-50 years, No
significant age differences were found on any of the study variables. Gender differences were seen to be significant in FO,Absolute Jitter, Relative Jitter, Jitter PPQ5, Shimmer APQ5 and
HNR. The interaction between age and gender was significant on
all jitter measures. The interaction showed an increase in all these
measures between the ages of 3l-40 years and decrease between
the ages of 41-50 years in women. A reverse effect was noted in
men, where the values were found to be declined between the
ages of 31-40 years and rising between 41-50 years. Current
findings can be used in clinical settings for voice assessment and
for monitoring the treatment progress and can also be used as
comparison data in future researches.

Keywords: Acoustic Analysis, Normal Voice Patterns, Jitter.

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