The Role of Dark Triads, Empathy and Self-Efficacy in Bullying and Victimization

Author: Gul-e-Sehar

Supervisor: Iram Fatima, Ph.D

Degree: M.Phil

Year: 2011-2013

University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


A correlational study was conducted to assess the role of empathy, selfefficacy and dark triads in bullying and victimization. It was
hypothesized that empathy and self-efficacy would be negatively related
to bullying and victimization behaviors. Moreover, dark triads would be
positively related to bullying and negatively related to victimization. By
using cluster sampling strategy, the sample of 479 students (boys = 245,
girls = 234) with age range of 13 to 16 (M = 15.11, SD = 1.24) were
recruited from public sector schools of Lahore city. Four measurement
scales; Adolescent Peer Relations Instruments (Parada, 2000) for bullying
and victimization ,the Basic Empathy scale (Jolliffe & Farrington, 2006)
for cognitive and affective empathy, Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for
Children (Muris,2001) for measuring self-efficacy and The Short D3
(Paulhus & Wlliams, 2002) for three dark triads i.e., Machiavellism,
narcissism and psychopathy were administered for data collection.
Results from hierarchical regression analysis revealed that affective
empathy and academic self-efficacy negatively predicted bullying and
psychopathy positively predicted both bullying and victimization while
narcissism predicted bullying only in boys. The findings of this work
have important implications for teachers, parents and researchers as well
as it would also be helpful in developing an anti- bullying intervention
programme for students in schools

Keywords: Bullying, Victimization, Self-Efficacy, Dark Triads.

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Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email:, Phone: 92-42-9231245

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