Stress Appraisal, Anger and Psychological Distress in Hypertensive and Non-Hypertensive Individuals

Author: Iqra Saeed

Supervisor: Humaira Naz

Degree: BS

Year: 2010-2014

University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


The study was conducted to assess the difference between stress appraisal, anger and psychological distress in hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals. First hypothesis stated that hypertensive individuals would score high on stress appraisal, anger and psychological distress than non-hypertensive individuals. It was also hypothesized that there would likely be an interaction between hypertensive, non-hypertensive individuals and gender in on stress appraisal, anger and psychological distress. I t was also proposed was that there would likely be a predictive relationship between stress appraisal, anger and psychological distress in hypertensive individuals. Between group design and purposive sampling was employed as sampling strategy. Total sample was 176 included hypertensive (n=88) with age ranges 44-60 (M=51, SD=4.2). The non-hypertensive (n=88) were with age ranges 44-60 (M=50, SD=4.1). There were 100 women and 76 men selected from various hospitals in Lahore. Stress appraisal Measure, developed by Wong and Peacock (1990) and adapted by Kausar (2001), Clinical Anger scale (Snell, 1995; Sadaf & Dawood, 2013 Urdu Version) and DASS 21 (Lovibond, 1995) were used for the purpose of assessment. Two Way ANOVA revealed that hypertensive individuals showed significant differences from non-hypertensive at all subscales of stress appraisal except challenge appraisal. No gender difference and interaction between hypertension vs. non hypertension and gender was found on all variables. Primary (threat, challenge and centrality) and secondary (controllable by self, controllable by others, uncontrollability and overall stressfulness) stress appraisals and Clinical anger scale had significant positive relationship with depression, anxiety and stress. Clinical anger, uncontrollability and threat were emerged as predictors of depression. Predictors of anxiety were clinical anger, stressfulness and threat whereas clinical anger and uncontrollability predicted stress. Hence it was concluded that hypertensive individuals are prone towards stress, feeling anger and psychological distress when they negatively appraise stressors. The study can be further implicated on hypertensive population for the better understanding of etiological significance stress appraisal; anger linked with psychological distress and to further formulates counseling strategies.

Keywords: Alexithymia, Depression, Anxiety, Stress.

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Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email:, Phone: 92-42-9231245