Stress and Anger among Smokers and Non-Smokers

Author: Faiza Nazar

Supervisor: Ms. Rafia Rafique

Degree: M.Sc

Year: 2006-2008

University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


The present research was carried out to investigate the difference in the level of stress and anger among smokers and nonsmokers. Cross sectional research design was used for this study. Multistage sampling was used for data collection. Departments were randomly drawn from list of all departments in Punjab University. Later students were included in the study through purposive sampling. The data was collected through two self-constructed, indigenous questionnaires. The sample consisted of 80 male students (40 smokers & 40 non smokers). The Chronbach alpha reliability of the stress scale is r=.86. The Chronbach alpha reliability of the anger scale is r=.79. The results indicated that smokers have comparatively more anger then nonsmokers but there is no significant difference in smokers and nonsmokers’ level of stress.

Keywords: Stress, Anger, Smoker, Non-smoker

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Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email:, Phone: 92-42-9231245

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