Self-efficacy, Perceived Social Support and Marital Adjustment amongst women with Antenatal Depressive Symptoms

Author: Nida Zafar

Supervisor: Aasma Yousuf

Degree: BS

Year: 2009-2013

University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between self-efficacy, perceived social support and marital adjustment and symptoms of depression during pregnancy. To evaluate this relationship a within group research design was employed. Women in their third trimester of pregnancy (N- 120) between the ages of 20 to 40 years were taken from public, private and trust hospitals by employing purposive sampling. The study hypothesized that there is a relationship between antenatal depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, perceived social support and marital adjustment. Furthermore it was also hypothesized that self-efficacy, perceived social support and marital adjustment will predict antenatal depressive symptoms. The women were administered Edinburgh Postnatal Depressive Scale (Cox, Holden, & Sagovsky, 1987) to screen them for depression and other instruments, which included General Self-efficacy Scale (Schwarzer, & Jerusalem, 1995), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet& Farley, 1988) and Locke and Wallace Marital-Adjustment Test (Locke & Wallace, 1959). An inverse significant correlation was found between antenatal depressive symptoms and general self-efficacy using Pearson product moment correlation. While on the other hand, regression analysis revealed self-efficacy, perceived social support and marital adjustment to be significant predictors of antenatal depressive symptoms. The results of the research imply an inclusion policy in hospitals where each pregnant woman is screened for depression especially in their third trimester and the intervention provided to them include family therapy with the woman`s husband and family.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Perceived Social Support, Marital Adjustment, Antenatal Depressive Symptoms.

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Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email:, Phone: 92-42-9231245