Relationship of Parenting Styles and Self-efficacy with Depression and Anxiety in Late Adolescents

Author: Laila Ashraf

Supervisor: Dr. Aisha Sitwat

Degree: M.Phil

Year: 2005-2007

University: Centre for Clinical Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


The aim of the present research was to find out the relationship of parenting styles and self- efficacy with depression and anxiety in late adolescents. It was hypothesized that there would be an inverse association of authoritative parenting style and self-efficacy and direct association of authoritarian and permissive parenting style with depression and anxiety among boys and girls of late adolescents. A sample of 689 boys and girls with age range of 16 to 19 years was collected through purposive sampling from the different colleges and universities of Lahore. In order to assess perceived parenting styles, self-efficacy, depression and anxiety. Parental Authority Questionnaire, General Self-efficacy Scale and Depression and Anxiety scales of Symptom checklist were administered. Results partially supported the hypothesis. Correlation analyses showed a significant inverse relationship of authoritative parenting style and general self-efficacy, and direct relationship of authoritarian parenting with depression and anxiety. However permissive parenting style was not significantly related with the depression and anxiety in boys and girls. Regression Analyses however indicated that gender differences exist in the pattern of association of parenting styles with depression and anxiety. In girls, authoritative parenting showed an inverse relationship and authoritarian parenting showed direct association with depression and anxiety respectively. However for boys, none of the three parenting styles predicted depression and only authoritative parenting showed inverse association with anxiety. Generalized self-efficacy equally contributed the prediction of depression and anxiety in boys and girls.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Depression, anxiety, Parenting Style, Gender Differences.

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