Psycho-Social Correlates of Well being among Adolescents in the Era of Terrorism

Author: Humana Yousaf:

Supervisor: Dr. Saima Dawood

Degree: MS

Year: 2008-2010

University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


The present study was conducted to investigate the psycho-social correlates: spirituality, religiosity, social support and coping of psychological wellbeing among Pakistani adolescents in the era of terrorism. For this purpose Cross Sectional Survey Research Design was used. A sample of 672 adolescents (336 girls & 336 boys) with an age range from 13 to 19 years was collected through Purposive sampling from selected schools and colleges of Aziz Bhatti town Lahore. Five instruments: Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ); Siddiqui Shah Depression Scale (SSDS); Spiritual Well Being Scale (SWBS); Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ) and Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) were administered on the sample in group settings along with a Demographic Questionnaire devised by the researcher. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire [(OHQ) Argyle & Hills, 2002)] consisted of 29 items and Siddiqui Shah Depression Scale [(SSDS) Siddiqui & Shah, 2009] consisted of 36 items were used to assess the Psychological Well Being of adolescents. The Spiritual Well Being Scale [(SWBS) Paloutizian & Ellisions, 1982] was administered to assess the two dimensions of Spiritual Well Being: Religious Well Being (RWB) and Existential Well Being (EBW). Religiosity was measured through 5 questions which were added in demographic questionnaire. The Social Support Questionnaire [(SSQ) Sarason, Sarason, Shearin, & Pierce, 1987] consisted of 7 items, was administered to assess the two dimensions of Social Support: Number of Supportive Relations (SS-N) and Level of Satisfaction with the Provided Support (SS-S). The Coping Strategies Questionnaire [(CSQ) Kausar & Munir, 2004] comprising of 62 items with four scales: Active Practical Coping (CSQ-AP); Active Distractive Coping (CSQ-AD); Avoidance Focused Coping (CSQ-AF) and Religious Coping (CSQ-R) were used to assess the coping styles being used by the adolescents. The data was analyzed through Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, Regression Analysis and t-test. Significant Psycho-social correlates of Psychological Wellbeing for adolescents were spirituality; satisfaction with the provided social support; coping: high active practical, active distractive & religious coping and poor avoidance focused coping Study about religion (Quran, Hadith and Fiqha books, Bible) and regularity in offering the Prayers. Lower levels of existential wellbeing, less religious coping and higher levels of avoidance focused coping strategies predicted vulnerability towards depression in adolescents, whereas regularity in offering prayer, higher existential wellbeing and level of satisfaction to provided social support, higher level of active practical and lower levels of avoidance focused coping strategies predicted psychological wellbeing for the adolescents. Girls were significantly happier than boys with no differences on Spiritual Well Being Scale in Terms of gender. CSQ-R strategies were most frequently used and CSQ-AF were least used. Girl reported a significantly high level of satisfaction by the provided support of relatives and used more CSQ- AD and CSQ-AF coping strategies in comparison to boys. It showed spirituality religiosity, social support and coping plays a pivotal role in promoting wellbeing of adolescents and could be targeted as part of prevention and intervention program to promote wellbeing and resilience among adolescents to face difficult circumstances and challenges of life.

Keywords: Spirituality. Wellbeing, Adolescents, Coping, Social Support, Terrorism.

Visit University to get the full thesis.

Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email:, Phone: 92-42-9231245