Illness Perceptions and Depressive Symptoms among Patients with Type-II Diabetes

Author: Iqra Zulfiqar

Supervisor: Fatima Kamran, Ph.D

Degree: MSc

Year: 2012-2014

University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


It was hypothesized that negative illness perceptions are positively
associated with depression among patient with type II diabetes.
Demographic and clinical characteristics i.e. gender, monthly family
income, age at onset of disease, duration and insulin dependency are
positively associated with depression. Negative illness perceptions,
demographic and clinical characteristics i.e. gender, Monthly Family
income (MFI), age at onset of disease, duration and insulin dependency
will predict depression in diabetic patients, were analyzed using pearson
product moment correlation. The present research was conducted to
investigate the association between illness perceptions and depressive
symptoms among patients with type-II diabetes. The sample for the
current research consisted of 44 (men = 13, women = 31) patients
diagnosed with type II diabetes whose age ranged from 40-74 years (M =
54) and mean age at the onset of diabetes was (M = 47). The data were
collected from the outpatient department of government hospitals of
Lahore. Brief illness perception questionnaire was used to assess illness
perceptions (Broadbent, Petrie, Main, & Weinman, 2006). Depressive
symptoms were assessed by patient health questionnaire-9 (Kroenke,
Spitzer, Janet, William & Lowe, 2010). The results indicated a significant
positive correlation between negative illness perceptions and depression.
However, demographic variables did not show any significant association
except monthly family income, reflecting a significant negative correlation
with negative illness perceptions. It seems that financial conditions are
associated to mood. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that
patients with negative illness perceptions tend to have more depressive
symptoms. Among demographic variables gender, Monthly family
income, insulin dependency predicted depressive symptoms, showing that
being female, having adverse diabetic symptoms (therefore, using insulin)
and financial conditions were positively predicting depression. However,
illness perceptions did not differ significantly in either group reflecting
that illness perceptions are not influenced by gender. The findings can be
implemented by identifying vulnerable patient populations for depression
and referring them for psychological help to alleviate depression.

Keywords: Illness Perceptions, Depressive Symptoms, Mood, Type-II Diabetes.

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Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email:, Phone: 92-42-9231245

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