Gender Stereotypes, Masculinities and Gender Based Violence among Pharmaceutical Sector Employees

Thesis Title: Gender Stereotypes, Masculinities and Gender Based Violence among Pharmaceutical Sector Employees

Student Name: Asma Malik

Supervisors: Ghulam Ishaq & Rafia Rafique, PhD

Degree: BS

Year: 2014-2018

Department: Institute of Applied Psychology

University: Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email:, Phone: 92-42-9231245


The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between gender stereotypes, masculinities and gender- based violence in pharmaceutical sector employees. It was hypothesized that gender stereotypes would have negative relationship with gender-based violence, whereas masculinities would have positive relationship with gender- based violence. It was hypothesized that masculinities are likely to moderate the relationship between gender stereotypes and gender-based violence. Correlational research design was used to examine the proposed hypotheses. The sample of this study was pharmaceutical sector employees; drawn conveniently and comprised of 100 men and 20 women with an age range of 20 to 50 years (M = 31.53, SD = 8.67). Attitude towards Women Scale (AWS; Spence, Helmrich & Stapp, 1978), Masculine Role Inventory (Snell, 2013) and Attitudes towards Violence Scale (ATVS; Anderson, Benjamin, Wood & Bonacci, 2006) were used to measure the constructs of attitude towards women, concepts of masculinities and attitude towards violence. The results indicated that gender stereotypes did not have significant negative relationship with gender-based violence. Moreover, masculinities had significant positive relationship with gender-based violence. Findings of hierarchical regression showed that masculinities did not moderate the relationship between gender stereotypes and gender- based violence. The overall research indicated that concept of masculinities among employees is closely linked with gender-based violence. So, the present research gave an insight into masculinity concepts of employees and helps to strategize gender sensitization workshops and trainings to overcome gender-based violence. This research will open avenues for new research on the constructs of gender stereotypical attitudes, masculinity concepts and gender-based violence prevailing in the society.

Keywords:      Gender     stereotypes,     masculinities,      violence, pharmaceutical sector, employees.

Leave a Reply