Author: Rabia Mumtaz

Supervisor: Humaira Naz, Sharmeen Aslam Tarar, Farah Malik PhD

Degree: MS

Year: 2015-2017

University: Centre for Clinical Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


The present study investigated the acquisition of Urdu
Consonants in Typically Developing 2-3 years old children. It
also aimed to find emerging consonants in typically developing
children (age range 2-3 years old). In present study, age and
gender differences on consonant accuracy in terms of consonant
correct (PCC) were also investigated. The sample of the present
study comprised of 24 typically developing 2-3 years old children
and was divided into two age groups (24-30 months; 31-36
months). Speech sample data was collected through Purposive
Sampling from a single city Sialkot, Pakistan. A picture booklet
consisted of wordlist for articulation and phonological assessment
was used to elicit speech data from children. The data was
transcribed and analyzed by the researcher for speech analyses.
Speech analyses revealed that 16 Urdu consonants emerged in 2-3
years old children. Children in the age range (2-3 years old) also
produced 8 Urdu consonant at customary level and 1 Urdu
consonant at acquired level. The age difference on consonant
accuracy (PCC) was significant. However, the gender difference
was not found on PCC. The present study provides indigenous
data on Urdu consonant acquisition in typically developing 2-3
years old children which will help Speech Language Pathologists
working in Pakistan to early diagnose and prepare therapy goals
for young children with articulation difficulties and delay.

Keywords: Urdu Consonants, Typically Developing Children.

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