Gender Differences in Self-estimated Multiple Intelligences Among Secondary School Students

Article Title: Gender Differences in Self-estimated Multiple Intelligences Among Secondary School Students

Author(s): Gulap Shahzad,a Umar A. Khan, Safdar R. Ghazi and Yousaf Hayat

Institute(s): University of Science & Technology, Bannu; Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan; Department of Mathematics, Statistics & Computer Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar.

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 2015, Vol. 30, No. 1, 81-94

Correspondence Address: Gulap Shahzada at Institute of Education and Research, University of Science and Technology, Bannu Pakistan. E-mail:


The present study aimed to explore gender differences in self-estimated multiple intelligences. Stratified random sampling technique was used for the selection of 905 (542 boys and 363 girls) secondary school students of Southern Districts, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The age of the participants varied from 14-16 years. Forty five items derived from Armstrong Multiple Intelligence Inventory (1994) and McKenzie’s Intelligence Scale (1999) based on Gardner’s multiple intelligences were used as data collection instrument. The results of the study revealed that female students estimated their verbal/linguistic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligences higher than their male counterparts; and male students rated their bodily/kinesthetic and naturalistic intelligences higher than their female counterparts; while nonsignificant differences were found between male and female students on logical/mathematical, visual/ spatial, musical and existential intelligences. It is suggested that parents, school, and teachers should provide such an environment where all intelligences of both the gender may flourish and develop. This study provides useful information regarding gender differences on self-estimates of multiple intelligence.

Keywords. Self-estimated, multiple intelligences, gender difference

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