Article Title: Emotional Intelligence, Self-Efficacy, and Creativity Among Employees of Advertising Agencies
Author(s): Saadia Khalid and Aisha Zubair
Institute(s): National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 2014, Vol. 29, No. 2, 203-221
Correspondence Address: Aisha Zubair, National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Email: email@example.com
The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and creativity among employees of advertising agencies. It was also intended to explore the role of demographic variables including job designation and job experience in relation to variables of the study. The sample comprised of 205 employees of advertising agencies from Rawalpindi and Islamabad including both men (n = 155) and women (n = 50) with ages ranging from 20-65 years. Self-report Measure of Emotional Intelligence (Khan, 2008), Generalized Self-efficacy Scale (Jerusalem & Schwarzer, 1995), and Self-report Measure of Employee Creativity (Zhou & George, 2003) were used in the present study to measure emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and employee creativity, respectively. The results showed that emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and creativity were positively related with each other among employees of advertising agencies. Moreover, emotional intelligence and self-efficacy were found to be significant predictors of creativity. Mediation analysis showed partial mediating role of self-efficacy in explaining the relationship between emotional intelligence and creativity. Significant group differences with respect to job designation and job experience were found in the present sample. Findings showed that creative directors and art directors showed significantly higher creativity than other job holders. Moreover, employees with extended job experience expressed greater emotional intelligence, higher self-efficacy, and elevated levels of creativity as compared to their counterparts.
Keywords. Emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, creativity, advertising agencies, employees