Article Title: Effect of Music on Cognitive and Behavioral Problems of Special Children
Author(s): Shabbir Ahmad Rana, Rabia Mussarat and Najma Iqbal Malik
Institute/ University: Department of Applied Psychology, Government M.A.O College, Lahore; Government Queen Marry College, Lahore; University of Sargodha, Sargodha.
Journal: Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS) Vol. 34, No. 2 (2014), pp. 825-839
Correspondence Address: firstname.lastname@example.org; rabiya _86@ yahoo.com; email@example.com
The present study was conducted to see the effect of music on cognitive and behavioral problems of special children with physical disabilities. It was hypothesized that ‘Listening to Music’ will reduce the level of cognitive and behavioral problems of these children. Pre-post test experimental research design was employed. A sample of 31 children (22 boys and 09 girls) was selected through purposive sampling technique. Age range of the sample was from 06-16 years (M= 11.1 & SD= 2.41), and was taken from one Model School of Department of Special Education, Lahore. The children were divided into three groups, Experimental Group-A, Experimental Group-B and Control Group-C. In addition to the ongoing routine education, the Group-A was exposed to listening to ‘music of nature’ and Group-B was involved in ‘play activity’ for 60 minutes daily, consecutively for two months, whereas the Group-C did not received ‘any intervention’. Data was collected twice on the basis of two assessment tools; Comprehensive Behavior Rating Scale for Children (CBRSC)- A Teacher Rating Scale, and Beck Youth Inventory (BYI-II)- A Self-Report Inventory by Children, before and after the intervention. Results showed that ‘listening to music’ proved most beneficial in reducing the level of cognitive and behavioral problems of the children of Group-A as compared to Group-B and Group-C. The importance of this study rests in generalization of the results of the previous western researches in the eastern context by indicating that involvements with music have therapeutic effect on special children of Pakistan. The results of study are important for their theoretical implication in the field of music, developmental and educational psychology having unique practical utility in everyday life.
Keywords: Music, special children, cognitive development, behavior problems