Cross-Cultural Validation of Dysfunctional Attitude Scale

Article Title: Cross-Cultural Validation of Dysfunctional Attitude Scale

Author(s): Farzaneh Fouladgar, Saima Dawood, & Nashi Khan

Institute(s): Centre for Clinical Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore.

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2017, Vol. 15, No.1, 11-19

Correspondence Address: Farzaneh Fouladgar, PhD Scholar, Centre for Clinical Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, email:


The present research explored dysfunctional attitude in Iranian and Pakistani university students. For this purpose, a sample of 1500 students was taken with equal numbers from Iran and Pakistan. The age range of participants was 20-40 years. The data were collected from Public Universities of Iran (University of Isfahan & University of Kashan) and Pakistan (University of the Punjab and Government College University Lahore).The dysfunctional attitudes of participants were assessed through Dysfunctional Attitude Scale Form-A (DAS-A, Weissman & Beck, 1980). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) identified the factors underlying each dimension of DAS and yielded four factor solutionof 40 items which reflected themes of Perfectionism (15 items); Approval (12 items); Achievement (7 items) and Autonomy (6 items).The findings indicated that Pakistani students expressed greater dysfunctional attitudes of perfectionism, approval and autonomy than Iranian students whereas, Iranian students scored higher on dysfunctional attitude of achievement compared to the Pakistani students. Regarding gender differences,the findings revealed that Pakistani male students showed more dysfunctional attitudes related to achievement than Pakistani female students and Iranian female students showed more dysfunctional attitude of autonomy than Iranian male students.It can be concluded that dysfunctional attitude of university students vary from culture to culture.

Keywords: Dysfunctional Attitude, Gender Differences, Cultural Differences, Iranian/Pakistani students

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