Anger as a Risk Factor of Coronary Heart Disease

Author: Zunera Ahmed

Supervisor: Dr. Rafia Rafique

Degree: MPhil

Year: 2010-2012

University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) mortality and morbidity is escalating in developing countries like Pakistan. Control of CHD has had limited success in Pakistan, due to inadequate research efforts undertaken in this regard. It has now become pertinent to infer risk factors associated with CHD. So the primary aim of the present study was to find out whether anger is a risk factor for CHD. State Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) (Spielgberger, 1990) was used to measure anger. Two studies were carried out, the first study aimed to translate STAXI-2 through the process of validation and convergent validity was estimated by correlating the scores of State Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (Spielgberger, 1990) with Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992). The resulting correlation were found to be significant and added to the validity of STAXI-2. Cronbach alpha reliability of both measures was assessed. The main study designed to infer association of anger as a risk factor for CHD was carried out on a sample (N = 120) of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CHD. Case control research design was employed. STAXI-2 was used to assess; state anger, trait anger, anger expression in, anger expression out, anger control in, and anger control out. Data was collected from different private and government hospitals of Punjab, Pakistan. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. The results of the study showed that state anger is a significant risk factor of CHD. The study holds implications for implementation of state anger assessment and interventional strategies for patients diagnosed with CHD.



 anger, coronary heart disease, risk factors.

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Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email:, Phone: 92-42-9231245

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