Positive and Negative Affect and Social Support among Patients Diagnose with HIV

Author: Sara Ahmed

Supervisor: Dr. Rafia Rafique

Degree: MPhil

Year: (2009–2011)

University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


The current research was aimed at investigating gender differences in positive and negative affect and social support of patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. It was hypothesized that the positive affect of HIV positive men is different from HIV positive women. It was also hypothesized that the negative effect of men with HIV is different from HIV positive women. It was further hypothesized that the social support of men is different from women diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. Cross-sectional survey research design was used to conduct the recent study. The data, for a sample sixty HIV positive patients (30 men and 30 women) was gathered through purposive sampling from three HIV/AIDS special treatment centers in Lahore (Jinnah Hospital, Mayo Hospital, and Services Hospital) and one in Islamabad (Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences). A set of questionnaires consisting of a Demographic information sheet, Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS, Schwarzer & Schulz, 2000), and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule was utilized (PANAS, Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) were used for individual assessment of social support and affect. The assessment tools were translated into Urdu language through forward and backward translation for the feasibility of the patients. Independent sample t-test was carried out to compare gender difference in social support, affect of patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. The findings suggested that there was no significant gender difference in positive and negative effect of patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. However, a significant difference was found between the received support of men and women HIV patients; men were found to have greater actually received support. Results of the study also pointed out towards a negative correlation between social support and negative effect.

Keywords: positive and negative affect, social support, patients with HIV.

Visit University to get the full thesis.

Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: chairperson@appsy.pu.edu.pk, Phone: 92-42-9231245

Leave a Reply