Development Of Terrorism Impact Scale: Initial Validity And Reliability Analyses

Article Title: Development Of Terrorism Impact Scale: Initial Validity And Reliability Analyses

Author(s): Farah Malik, Rabia Khawar, Rabia Iftikhar, Saima Saeed and Rehana Ilyas

Institute(s): Department of Psychology, GC University, L.ahore, Pakistan

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2010, Vol. 8, No.2, 91 – 118

Correspondence address: Dr. Farah Malik, Chairperson, Department of Psychology. GC University, Kalchery Road, Lahore .54000, Pakistan. Email:;


This study describes the development and psychometric properties of Terrorism Impact Scale (TIS). Items generated were based on two focus groups with journalists. personnel from security forces and experts from different walks of life, in-depth interviews conducted with religious scholars and a preliminary questionnaire administered to the survivors of terrorist attacks, witnesses and general public in Lahore. Initially, a pool of 200 items was generated tapping different types of impact of terrorism ill the society (e.g., emotional, psychological. and socio-cultural). An expert opinion based pool of 95 items was retained for initial empirical evaluation on four groups (students, general public, terror attack survivors, and security forces, N = 280). The factor analytic strategy generated 5 clusters with 64 items, labeled as State Affairs, Psychosocial Distress, Civic Affairs. Governance issues, and Resilience. TIS demonstrated significant construct validity and reliability overall and for its 5 subscales. Item analysis and alpha coefficients revealed significantly high internal consistency for the measure. Further analysis of data revealed significant differences among participant groups for impact of terrorism.

Keywords: terrorism, Pakistan, impact of terrorism, resilience

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