Development of a Scale of Resilience against Terrorism

Article Title: Development of a Scale of Resilience against Terrorism

Author(s): Rehana Ilyas & Farah Malik

Institute(s): Department of Psychology, University of Sargodha; Department of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore

Journal: Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2016, Vol. 14, No.1, 15-20

Correspondence Address: Rehanna Illyas, Department of Psychology, University of Sargodha, Lahore, Pakistan; e-mail:


The present study describes the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the scale of Resilience Against Terrorism (RAT). An extensive exercise was undertaken to identify specific constructs covering resilience in Pakistani cultural context while using both theoretical and empirical approaches. Initially a fairly large pool of items was generated with the help of the focus groups, interviews with experts, students and literature out of which 74 items were retained. To evaluate it empirically, 276 males and 218 females were contacted from all walks of life and all over the country including people who have witnessed a terrorist attack and those who have heard it but haven’t seen it. Principle component factor analysis was conducted to select items for RAT and determine its construct validity which provided four factors solution (Pessimism, Self-efficacy, Optimism & Sanctity and Education). The scale comprised 52 items selected on the basis of factor loading no less than.35. Internal consistency of the scale with 52 items was highly significant (α = .82).

Keywords: resilience, pessimism, self-efficacy, optimism, sanctity and education

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