Development of a General Comprehension Test of Achievement

Author: Mahmood Sadiq

Supervisor: Dr. Nosheen K. Rahman

Degree: M.Phil

Year: 1999-2001

University: Institute of Applied Psychology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan


The purpose of the present study was to develop a General Comprehension Test of Achievement as a screening tool for Intermediate level students in English language, particularly for students who want to apply for commission in Pakistan Navy as previously no comprehensive screening instrument was available.Another important consideration was. that with the help of a locally built achievement test such students stand better chances of performing to their true potential compared to when they are being tested through other foreign tests, not developed keeping in view cultural differences,This test comprises of four subtests; Vocabulary Test. Numerical Reasoning Test, Verbal Reasoning Test and Verbal Comprehension Test. The items of the subtests were selected from the core curriculum of classes of 11 to 12, because all the students are exposed to maximum common pool of vocabulary in this source. Items of all the subtests were selected with a criterion of high loading on general ability factor of Spearman. The effectiveness of the items was judged after administering them on a sample of 200 college students, by applying indices of difficulty and discrimination. All the items were arranged with reference to minimum difficulty level to maximum discrimination power.Final data was collected to develop norms from 343 bilingual male students of F.Sc pre-engineering group having age range of 16 to 21 years from different colleges of Lahore city. Rationale for selecting intermediate level was that students of such educational background are most suitable lot for getting commission in Pakistan Navy as compare to students with other qualifications.The reliability of GCTA was determined by Kuder Richardson method and split-half method. The results suggested high reliability of the test both in terms of internal consistency and temporal stability of the items.The validity of the test was determined by two procedures i.e. the concurrent validity and the construct validity. The concurrent validity was determined by correlating it with the college marks of the students in their last annual examination. The construct validity was studied by examining the internal consistency of GCTA and its subtests. Results reflected high concurrent validity and internal consistency.

Keywords: Achievement, bilingual, concurrent validity, Construct validity. Comprehension, Vocabulary.

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Corresponding Address: Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Email:, Phone: 92-42-9231245